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April 30, 2021

Cliff Walkers


Xuan ya zhi shang
Zhang Yimou - 2021
CMC Pictures

I am not sure why the English language title was changed from Impasse. The new title suggests a very different kind of action film, whereas the story here is about four spies on a mission that continually faces a variety of obstacles. Zhang may be at an artistic impasse following his relative failure with two films, The Flowers of War and The Great Wall, starring Christian Bale and Matt Damon respectively, not achieving the anticipated box office success. Add to that the temporary CCP censorship of One Second, and it appears that Zhang has retreated into making a film that would get easy approval from the government authorities and appeal primarily for the mainland audience.

Those without some knowledge of modern Chinese history might be baffled without some context. The film takes place some time during the 1930s when the northeastern part of China was controlled by a Japanese installed puppet government. The team of spies are Soviet trained Chinese agents who go to the city of Harbin to rescue a prisoner as well as expose how the prison is in violation of international law. There are double agents on both sides, and suspicion everywhere. In case the point is missed regarding any of the film's intentions, there is a final dedication to "the heroes of the revolution".

While the story may be of limited interest, Zhang once again has his pictorialism to fall back on. The opening shot, seemingly abstract, of four white circles above a grey patterned background, is revealed to be an overhead shot of four parachutes over a snowy forest. Zhang has several high overhead shots that make for interesting abstract images. The color palette here is mostly limited to shades of grey, white, black and brown. The clothing is equally dark with most of the characters, including the women, donning fedoras that partially hide their faces. While the spies initially hide in the cover of whiteness of heavy snowfall, most of the film takes place in dimly lit spaces.

The actress Liu Haicun as one of the agents, Lan, follows in the footsteps of previous Zhang protagonists including Gong Li and Zhang Ziyi. Liu starred in One Second and is in Zhang's current production, Ju Ji Shou. Here she takes on all manner of villains in hand-to-hand fighting, as well as guns and knives. Time will tell if Liu gets the kind of international fame accorded Zhang's previous muses.

Posted by Peter Nellhaus at 04:13 AM

April 27, 2021

Switchblade Sisters


Jack Hill - 1975
Arrow Films BD Region A

While it may be true that certain parts of Switchblade Sisters were inspired by actual events and people researched by Jack Hill, the film is at heart closer to something like High School Confidential. And I love High School Confidential. But what we have is a film mostly populated by actors who are mostly well into their twenties, in a story that takes place in what I can only describe as a backlot Los Angeles marked up by an army of graffiti taggers. The mix of topicality does not make the film any more realistic. Any serious messages get lost the exaggerated, fanciful imagination of Hill.

The new girl at school, Maggie, is challenged by girl gang member, Patch, at the local burger stand. Patch is with the other members of the Dagger Debs, and gets her nickname from wearing an eyepatch. The gang leader, Lace, is the girlfriend of Dominic, "president" of the Silver Daggers. Maggie and Patch get into a fight, interrupted by the cops who take the girls to a reformatory. Maggie may the new girl on the block, but she is hardly naive to the ways of the street. Lace decides to give Maggie a chance to be part of the Dagger Debs, setting off a chain of events involving gang rivalries, jealousy and betrayal.

It should be no surprise that Robbie Lee, the young actress who played Lace, went on to primarily work as a voice artist. Snaggletoothed slightly keeps Lee from being conventionally attractive, but it is her voice that manages to be simultaneously annoying and endearing. Jack Hill described Lee's voice as reminding him of James Cagney, but that is not quite accurate. I think it is more like the voice of a child trying to sound tough, but it is still to high to be taken seriously. There may be better analogies, but Lee sounds more like a very young Mickey Rooney. Similar to some of the classic film gangsters, underneath Lace's tough exterior is a sentimental side that contributes to her undoing.

While it is not stated in any of the interviews with Hill or anyone associated with the production, I wonder if there was a time when Switchblade Sisters was intended to be a blaxploitation film. Previously, Hill had made his reputation with several films that made a star out of Pam Grier. There are scenes where making the film about black gangs might have made more sense. Some of the topicality of the time may be lost with a contemporary audience when the remaining Debs, now called the Jezebels, join forces with a cadre of black female revolutionaries who quote from Mao's Little Red Book. Back in 1975, most of the intended audience would know a reference to Angela (Davis) would not need to state her last name. As bad then as it is now, though, would to have a female character named "Muff", especially when played by Marlene Clark, an actress who deserved much better roles following Ganja and Hess.

In one of the supplementary interviews, Jack Hill states that he intended the film to be rated PG. Hill said that the R rating was due to the discussion of drug use, although I suspect that what also factored in the rating has been the tendency of a more punitive stance towards independent films. In an unsourced quote in IMDb, Hill also describes Switchblade Sisters as a fantasy. Both of these bring up the question as to whom was the intended audience. Hill's films, with the possible exception of Spider Baby, could all be described as exploitation films and were sold as such. Considering what was popular in 1975, the year of Jaws, it is hard to imagine that even under the best circumstances that Switchblade Sisters would have been embraced by a teen audience. The fantasy aspect might be best judged by Hill's choice to shoot several scenes on the backlots of MGM. Hill found this to be both more cost and time efficient than shooting (literally and figuratively) on location. But the virtually depopulated studio streets also add to a sense of unreality.

That embrace of commercial viability has proven elusive although the film has an afterlife with some critics and cult audiences. My own first viewing was in 1995 via Quentin Tarantino's Rolling Thunder Pictures. The Arrow release is a reflection of the contemporary female fandom that has emerged following that re-release. The enclosed booklet includes an interview with Hill by Alexandra Heller-Nicholas and an essay discussing the controversial rape scene. Heather Drain provides a more general overview of the film's narrative. The commentary track by Kat Ellinger and Samm Deighan provides more of a feminist perspective with Deighan providing a connection with several of the bad girl films from the 1950s. Fans of Jack Hill may also enjoy the collection of trailers from his other films included here.

Posted by Peter Nellhaus at 06:56 AM

April 20, 2021

The Invisible Man Appears

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The Invisible Man Appears / Tomei ningen arawaru
Nobuo Adachi - 1949

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The Invisible Man vs. The Human Fly / Tomei ningen to hae otoko
Mitsuo Murayama - 1957
Arrow Video BD Region A

What I found most interesting about these two films is how they reflected changes in Japan after World War II by what was said, or not stated. The character of the Invisible Man is mostly inspired by the James Whale classic, especially the in The Invisible Man Appears where the title character is dressed with the bandaged head, trench coat and fedora. Both films are dependent on the same special effects of objects floating in the air, and actors pretending to hold invisible objects on occasion and put themselves through various contortions while pretending to be assaulted by the unseen nemesis. Also, the more critical viewers of both films will be challenged to make sense of the stories.

Admittedly, the title The Invisible Man Appears is self-contradictory. A professor who looks a bit like Albert Einstein is supervising two protoges working on rival formulas to achieve invisibility. The two younger men are also rivals for the professor's daughter. The professor decides to show off his own formula, a liquid thus far tested on animals, to a businessman friend. The professor declines to sell the formula as there is no way to undo the invisibility. That does not stop the businessman who sets in motion a plot involving kidnapping and the theft of a valuable diamond necklace.

The Invisible Man Appears was filmed partially in Kobe as well as Daiei's Kyoto studio. The area appears to have been untouched during World War II. The professor notes that he had been working on his own invisibility formula for ten years, suggesting that he was left on his own during the war. A subplot has one of the young men with a sister who is a member of a variety troupe in Kobe. The film veers off to a series of excerpts from a stage show which is mostly made with a mix of more culturally traditional entertainment plus some western style music and dress. The professor's daughter is played by Chizuru Kitagawa, whose appeal was more Japanese specific.

What has made The Invisible Man Appears of most interest is that the special effects were the work of Eiji Tsuburaya, most famous for his special effects for Toho Studios' science-fiction films. At the time the film was made, Tsuburaya was temporarily blacklisted by American authorities for his too realistic recreation of the bombing of Pearl Harbor for a film released one year after the event. Takiko Mizunoe, the stage performing sister here, is better known if not by name, then by her work as Japan's first female producer, instrumental in creating Nikkatsu Studios' "borderless cinema". It may be less than coincidental that Mizunoe's career ended at about the same time following the release of Seijun Suzuki's Branded to Kill. There is virtually no substantive information on writer/director Nobuo Adachi beyond this filmography. There is an amusing scene with an invisible cat, heard but not seen, padding across a piano keyboard and generally knocking over anything perceived to be in the way. Adachi also repeats a superimposed close-up of a pair of eyes over a shot of the diamond necklace.

A bit more scientific mumbo jumbo informs The Invisible Man vs. The Human Fly. Actually there is more than one invisible man, plus one woman, who subject themselves to a special ray of light that renders them temporarily invisible. There is also more than one human fly, a villain who has some kind of formula that causes him to shrink to the size of a housefly and flit around unnoticed, going back to full-size at will. Plot holes are blithely ignored in favor of the spectacle of partially and completely invisible people, and a human fly who somehow manages to carry a full-sized knife as a backstabbing villain, and his employer, a businessman seeking revenge by blowing up parts of Tokyo.

The film takes place in Tokyo experiences its post-war resurgence. The war is directly referred to as the chief villain is seeking revenge on some fellow soldiers who left him alone to take the punishment for a wartime crime. One of the scientists view of nuclear weapons is that they were the unintended results of scientific research, a curiously apolitical stance. There are also breaks in the narrative taking place in a nightclub. The featured showgirl, Mieko, played by Ikuko Mori, wears outfits on stage that are more revealing, especially of her midriff and legs. Her stage performance is western in style and music. The other actresses indicate the changes in Japanese film towards women who more closely fit the western standards of beauty.

Aside from this film, the most well-known work in Mitsuo Murayama's filmography is Kenji Mizoguchi's Yang Kwei Fei, on which he served as an assistant director. Setting aside the risible narrative, Murayama proves to be a capable stylist here in his visual choices. An early scene where we just follow the legs of a couple might have been influenced by George Stevens. A couple of chases in empty streets accompanied by the sound of footsteps may have been lifted from Carol Reed. The film also benefits from a more solid budget. Like several other Japanese directors, Murayama worked in Hong Kong for the Shaw Brothers in the 1970s.

In addition to the two films, the blu-ray also has an overview by Kim Newman on the history of Invisible Man films. Included is an excerpt from the earliest known film to have been inspired by H. G. Wells' character, made in 1903. The accompanying booklet has essays by Keith Allison, Hayley Scanlon and Tom Vincent, helping put the films in their contexts regarding the title character and Japanese film culture of the time the films were produced. Both films were sources from surviving 16mm prints, with The Invisible Man vs. The Human Fly noticeably better preserved.

Posted by Peter Nellhaus at 08:39 AM

April 19, 2021

Clapboard Jungle

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Justin McConnell - 2021
Arrow Films

Clapboard Jungle should probably be mandatory viewing for anybody with aspirations of being a professional filmmaker. And, yes, it is a jungle out there.

Justin McConnell has documented part of his life, primarily the years between 2015 through 2017. Even with a modest track record of several shorts, a couple of documentaries and one feature, McConnell goes through the frustration of hoping to get financing to make a second feature. This means a concerted effort at networking, going to film marketing events to meet with potential producers, and having seemingly having nothing to show for all of the efforts in selling one's self and one's film. Finally, the modestly budgeted Lifechanger has enough financing in place to allow McConnell to make his film which in turn has an unexpectedly good run on the international film festival circuit, and several distribution deals.

More than just struggling to get the financing, McConnell shows what needs to be in place when in production. We briefly get to see some of the nuts and bolts that are part of the pre-production process, such as casting and scouting locations.

In between are excerpts from other filmmakers, primarily directors and producers, discussing the state of independent filmmaking today. The most familiar names would be Guillermo del Toro and George Romero. There are also actors Sid Haig, Dick Miller and Barbara Crampton. McConnell even puts his own uncertainty about his directorial career in some perspective by having some female directors including Jovanka Vuckovic and Gigi Saul Guerrero discuss the difficulty in being taken seriously. Film programmers also point out what they look for and ways in which film festivals can be helpful.

With the exception of Paul Schrader, everyone else who appears in Clapboard Jungle is associated with genre filmmaking. That should still not mean that the person wanting to be the next John Cassavetes should ignore what can be gleaned here. More likely, the road to making the film made and more importantly, seen, will be even more challenging.

The state of contemporary filmmaking exists in a kind of paradox. With the variety of streaming channels available, there is a demand for content, especially if it can be branded as Netflix has done with films picked up at the major festivals. If there seems to be a glut of horror films available, it has to do with several factors - they can be produced on modest or even micro budgets, they do not depend on name actors, and they are easier to sell. By sales, I mean having the filmmaker sell the concept to the potential financiers who are more likely to hop aboard if you say your film has similarities to an older, successful film, but also has its own unique qualities. As the Thai saying goes, "Same same, but different". And even though there are more films made to fill this insatiable demand by the streamers, it does not always translate as more opportunities for filmmakers who have to deal with producers who want to play it as safe as possible financially. Making a profit is the exception, not the rule, once a film is available to the public.

Even in the short time since McConnell filmed his odyssey, the horror film landscape has changed somewhat. There are more women making horror films, though not all of them have the kind of high profiles that make themselves known on the film festival circuit, or get distribution deals with high end niche distributors. McConnell also does not mention how some filmmakers have made use of crowdfunding, which was used by Ana Lily Amirpour for her debut, A Girl Walks Home Alone at Night, and Mattie Do for Dearest Sister, the first Laotian film to compete for the International Film Oscar. In the meantime, Lifechanger still has a life of its own being available on multiple streaming apps.

Clapboard Jungle is available on the Arrow streaming app by subscription and PVOD via other streaming services.

Posted by Peter Nellhaus at 06:30 AM

April 16, 2021

The Rookies

the rookies.jpg

Su ren te gong
Alan Yuen - 2019
Shout! Studios

When it comes to making films for Alan Yuen, the spectacle takes precedence over any kind of coherent story. Even more so than Firestorm (2014), we have a collection of sometimes spectacular set pieces strung together with a plot that does not make a whole lot of sense. The rookies of the title are four youngish people, eccentric in their own ways, who accidentally become involved in saving the world from a villain who has a chemical gas that turns people into plants. The action jumps from Hong Kong to Budapest, with our quartet working in conjunction with a secret international crime fighting organization.

The film is mostly comic although some moments of violence undermine the general good cheer. But it is also a mixed bag, with lots of special effects that are a reminder that Yuen intended his film to ideally be seen in 3D. Also mixed is the comedy, with visual humor easily winning over some of the verbal jousting that may have been lost in translation. The version being made available here is entirely in English, jarring when seeing Johnny To supporting player Lam Suet speaking in a voice I know is not his own. A side note here - there seems to be a law that Lam must be seen eating in all film appearances. Lam is a police chief who sends incompetent underling Sandrine Pinna to Budapest. The normally attractive Pinna is unrecognizable with heavy glasses and clothing. Milla Jovovich is sold as the film's main attraction but she is really more of a supporting character here. Yuen's idea of humor is to have her play a secret agent named Bruce, speak with a raspy voice, and wear a man's suit with her hair tightly in place. Imagine a somewhat glammed up Fran Lebowitz as an action star.

The best moments involves the rookies disguised as a Kiss cover band, and a Volkswagen Beetle souped beyond anything imagined for James Bond. That Yuen will try almost anything for a laugh includes a dumb-funny scene with an inflatable sex doll. The Rookies would still have benefitted from tightening up or simply cutting out some of the footage.

The Rookies is available on PVOD and limited theatrical engagements.

Posted by Peter Nellhaus at 06:55 AM

April 13, 2021



Qian dao wan li zhu
Mei-Chung Chang - 1977
KL Studio Classics BD Region A

I was curious about Dynasty based on having a bit more knowledge about Chinese language cinema than at the time of the film's initial release. Also, I have had a continual interest in 3D films, either those of a certain vintage, or by certain filmmakers. What I was not aware of until I did my research prior to viewing Dynasty was the involvement of Michael Findlay. And yes, indeed, this was the same Michael Findlay most infamously known for the rough sex films made primarily with his wife, Roberta. Those of more delicate dispositions may not want to know some of the seamier aspects of Findlay's life by those who knew him, but it seemed like his invention of of a single camera 3D attachment might have changed his life instead of indirectly being the cause of his death. Then again, 3D films seemed to trend in and out of popularity at the time. While King Hu's A Touch of Zen played recently at the New York Film Festival, Chinese language martial arts films were generally considered a step down from porn in the mid-1970s, dismissed, if reviewed at all, as "chopsocky".

Findlay served as a technical adviser on three films, all Hong Kong-Taiwanese coproductions. A second film directed by Chang, Revenge of the Shogun Women is reportedly even more extreme in its depiction of violence. The third film, Magnificent Bodyguards (1978), directed by Wei Lo, features an early starring role for Jackie Chan. The title translates from Mandarin to "Chase after a thousand knives". Basically, the evil eunuch, Lord Chao, is plotting to rule China. It is up to a young man, Tan, to stop Lord Chao. There follows various battles, ambushes and assorted mayhem. Heads and hands are lopped off. Spears, knives, bricks and arrow fly towards the camera. Not being aware of the quality of the competition, I can only report that Chang's film was regarded well enough in Taiwan to be nominated as Best Film for the Golden Horse awards, the Taiwanese equivalent to the Oscars. Ying Bai won as Best Supporting Actor for his performance as Chao. The film, as presented here, is only in an English dubbed version, which makes judging the quality of the performances difficult. Whatever qualities Dynasty has might be more credited to stunt coordinator Ying Chieh-Han and the production's uncredited editors for cleverly piecing together the extended action scenes.

The blu-ray has offered two ways of watching Dynasty. There is the polarized version for those with the television and the glasses. For myself, I watched the anaglyph version with an enclosed cardboard set of glasses. The viewing experience may be different depending on how one watches the film as well as the variables pertaining to the viewer's vision. My own take is that the 3D worked best in shots involving depth and distance. Objects coming towards the camera tended to vibrate and appear less solid. The intended effect is lost when that sword pointing at you seems very flimsy. Some leeway may be needed here as there were reportedly some technical imperfections at the time of production, and the 3D Archives was tasked with restoring a film that was probably not well preserved since its run through various drive-ins and grind houses.

The blu-ray comes with an assortment of extras. The most useful in relation to Dynasty is an explanation of how Michael Findlay created his Supertouch 3D system and its subsequent history. Also a couple of shorts on how 3D was used as a sales device, as well as 3D cameras for consumers. The animated music video, "Go Away I Like You Too Much" is cute and funny. The one misfire is the inclusion of a 1953 3D comic book, The House of Terror. Two full pages are on the screen, but the panels are still too small and wordy. Reproduction of individual panels or two at a time would have worked better in this case.

Posted by Peter Nellhaus at 06:12 AM

April 06, 2021

Western Classics II


The Redhead from Wyoming
Lee Sholem - 1953

Pillars of the Sky
George Marshall - 1957

Gun for a Coward
Abner Biberman - 1958
KL Studio Classics BD Region A Three-disc set

Doing some research prior to watching the films in this set, I was reminded of how different film exhibition was at the time these films made their respective theatrical runs. Westerns kept within a certain budget were almost guaranteed to make a profit, and were produced as way of keeping the studios financially afloat. Unless they were prestige productions, these films were usually seen in urban areas in second-tier theaters as part of a double feature, and as single features for a run of two days in the small town and rural theaters. There were the series of westerns starring James Stewart, directed by Anthony Mann, and the unexpected career resurgence of Randolph Scott beginning with his first collaboration with director Budd Boetticher. But more frequently, the films featured aging stars who had commercially peaked a decade or more earlier. To call the films in this collection "classics" might be a stretch, but they are representative of the Universal-International released of their time.

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Star Maureen O'Hara described The Redhead from Wyoming as "another western stinkeroo for Universal". It is mildly entertaining, and can charitably be considered the high point in the career of Lee "Roll-em" Sholem. The prolific director was known for keeping within tight budgets and schedules, which kept him in good stead churning out TV westerns on the Warner Brothers lot in the Fifties. O'Hara plays the part of a saloon owner caught up in the conflict between a local cattle baron and the newer settlers, and a triangle between a politically ambitious former lover and the town's sheriff. Fans of television westerns can catch future stars Dennis Weaver and Jack Kelly in supporting roles. The best part of this film would be the costumes for the dance hall gals from costume designer Edward Stevenson. Technicolor is used to, pardon the cliche, eye popping effect here. Samm Deighan provides a well-prepared commentary track, mostly discussing O'Hara, the historical inspirations for the film, and aspects of the cultural context, gold polish on a cinematic brass ring.

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George Marshall might be best remembered for directing three types of films - westerns, comedies, and comic westerns. Most serious critics consider Destry Rides Again, the comic western with James Stewart and Marlene Dietrich to be his best film. I much prefer Red Garters starring Rosemary Clooney, Gene Barry and Jack Carson. Much of that film takes place on a sparse, abstract set, kind of like Lars von Triers' Dogville, but more fun. Not as much fun is Pillars of the Sky.

Again there are two triangles. Taking place in 1868, Jeff Chandler is a sergeant who overseas an Indian reservation in Oregon, then still a territory. His job is to keep the peace between several tribes and enforce a treaty with the federal government. Due to a loophole soldiers come to build a bridge and create a trail through the tribal land. Added to this, Dorothy Malone, long in love with Chandler, but married to army captain Keith Andes, shows up. Along for the ride are a perpetually inebriated Lee Marvin, television's go to guy for playing Native Americans - Frank de Kova, and if you look close enough, Martin Milner. More significantly in the supporting cast is Olive Carey, who starred with husband Harry Carey in the wester, Love's Lariat, co-directed by George Marshall in 1916.

What makes this film very problematic for contemporary viewers is that the "good" Indians have been converted to Christianity by missionary/medical doctor Ward Bond. Several of the Native Americans have taken biblical names. The message of the film is that white people and Native Americans should and can live together, but only if the Native Americans negate their traditional beliefs. On the plus side, George Marshall fills the CinemaScope frame nicely with on location filming in Oregon. Western genre expert Toby Roan's commentary track includes pointing out many of the cast members and crew with overviews of their careers, a look at some of the production methods of the time at Universal-International, and a plethora of information not found in Wikipedia or IMDb.


There is not much subtlety with the hell raising youngest brother nicknamed Hade, while the meeker middle brother is named Bless. A bit of suspension of disbelief might be required to have the oldest rancher brother played by Fred MacMurray. If with this questionable casting, Gun for a Coward is the strongest of the three films in this set. With Jeffrey Hunter as Bless, Dean Stockwell as Hade, plus Chill Wills and Janice Rule, MacMurray has strong support. The film might be read as a parable about toxic masculinity. It should be a surprise to no one that Hunter redeems himself in the end, but not in the way that the title might suggest.

This is the only film currently available by actor turned director Abner Biberman. Not to be confused with the blacklisted Herbert Biberman, Abner Biberman does have an interesting, if small, filmography that includes a couple of thrillers from 1956 that respectively star Merle Oberon and Sylvia Sidney. Biberman makes use of the wide CinemaScope frame not only in his placement of people across the screen but also in composing shots that use as much of the depth within the frame. Unlike many wide screen films that emphasized lateral compositions, Biberman sometimes employs multiple planes in some of his group shots forcing greater active viewing. One standout scene is of Hunter and Stockwell making a late night visit to a virtually empty bar, the only business open in a what appears to be a late night. The pair are soon to be surrounded by a gang of bad hombres. In a film where much of the action can be anticipated in advance, this is the one scene with some genuine tension. Lee Gambin's commentary track places the film within the context of both the western genre and films made roughly within the same time that explored expressions of masculinity.

Posted by Peter Nellhaus at 04:45 AM

April 02, 2021

The Man in Search of his Murderer

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Der Mann, der seinen Morder sucht / Jim, der Mann mit der Narbe
Robert Siodmak - 1931
Kino Classics BD Region A

First, an explanation is needed regarding the two German titles. While the blu-ray is released with the English language translation of the original title, the actual film we see has the second title, translated as "Jim, the Man with the Scar", hereafter referred to as Jim. The original version, now considered lost, had a running time of 96 minutes. The blu-ray is the abridged version with a running time of 53 minutes. There is no online material discussing what is in the missing footage, nor is any information provided in the commentary track. Even with the excised footage, the narrative is still fairly cohesive.

While Robert Siodmak is known almost exclusively for his noir made during the 1940s, he has had a couple of comedies even after this film. And yet, I was overwhelmed by the how much of the film seemed connected to Billy Wilder, one of the film's three credited screenwriters. The basic plot is of a bumbling man, Hans Herfort, who can not bring himself to commit suicide by shooting himself in the head. A burglar breaks into Hans' apartment. Hans negotiates with the burglar to murder Hans for an agreed upon price by Noon the next day. The burglar bungles the job of assassin which is handed over to the titular Jim. In the meantime, Hans finds himself in love with Kitty, a young woman he meets in an overcrowded cabaret. Now in love, Hans attempts to cancel the contract on his life. The film is a black comedy that the creative team enjoyed making. Among the identifiable influences are the social satire of Brecht, the romantic misunderstandings of Lubitsch, and the boisterous mayhem of Buster Keaton and peers. Man/Jim was also a commercial failure, not connecting with the audience of the time.

With that opening scene, with Heinz Ruhmann as Hans, I thought immediately of how Wilder had used suicide as a source of humor in his films. That the initial set-up recalls Wilder's last film, Buddy, Buddy made me wonder if that film's original source author, Francis Veber, had at least seen the remake of Man that came out in 1952. That remake was written and directed by Ernst Neubach, author of the play that was the source for Siodmak's film. As for what changes were made and any specific contributions made by the writers, that is unknown. In an interview, Curt Siodmak only briefly mentions that he was working on the yet completed screenplay when producer Erich Pommer put the film in production. Having worked with him previously, Robert Siodmak brought in Wilder who was transitioning from working as a journalist. The third screen writer, Ludwig Hirschfeld, was primarily known for writing several travel books, stage plays and novellas. One play, Geschaft mit Amerika ("Doing Business in America") was filmed in four different language versions between 1932 and 1933. A play co-written by Hirschfeld was the source for a low budget American comedy, The Mad Martindales, released in 1942, the year Hirschfeld died in Auschwitz. It is sobering to note that the least known of the the creative team was the one who stayed in Germany while the others achieved varying degrees of success in Hollywood.

Visually, one can recognize Robert Siodmak's use of high and low angle shots. There is also the expressive use of lighting, especially in night time street scenes. The cabaret scene in particular is notbable in that we see the various dancing couple in the foreground moving in an out of the frame, while behind them, sitting at a table is the first view of Kitty with a would-be lover she is trying to shake off. The music score was by Friedrich Hollaender, known later as Frederick Hollander, with supervision by Franz Waxman. Hollander also has a small role in the film. The two composers would work again with Billy Wilder.

The commentary track by historian Josh Nelson primarily discusses the film as early work by Robert Siodmak. Stars Heinz Ruhmann and Dutch actress Lien Deyers have brief overviews of their respective careers. While the commentary is a well prepared presentation, I still wish I knew more about the film we can not see. As it is, the surviving Jim is a 2013 restoration from the F. W. Murnau Foundation which has done outstanding work with early German films.

Posted by Peter Nellhaus at 06:17 AM